Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Nature conservation: Management plan for Padworth Common
Nature conservation: Management plan for Padworth Common Nature conservation: Management plan for Padworth Common (Dartford Warbler). Overall Summary of management plan: Policy statement and Background Preamble: Padworth common nature reserve was previously owned by the west Berkshire county council. But in 2005 the land manamgement was acquired by the Buckinghamshire, and Oxford Wildlife Trust (BBOWT) in 2005 (Fort, 2013). The Main overall policy for this land is Ã¢â¬Å"to Ensure these sites continue to thrive both in terms of their significant wildlife interest and for the many local people who regularly use and enjoy themÃ¢â¬ . This was a statement given by the west Berkshire executive member for the environment Councillor Hilary Cole (Fort, 2013). Description Pathworth common is located between Aldermaston and Burghfield Common about 9 miles outside the city of reading (Jeffery, 2004). The land is currently owned by The West Berkshire County Council, as said before it is now managed but BBOWT since 2005 (Jeffery, 2004). The land is 30ha of open wet, dry and humid lowland heath with small sections of oak woodland, there is also a few large seasonal ponds and one that is permanently filled (Wallington, 2013). The Boundaries of Padworth common are to the south a privately owned field that and a sand and gravel quarry. And to the north east and the boundaries are defined by Old warren and Hatch farm. The western boundry is defined the small hamlet of Padworth Common. Management and infrastructure For the management for a lowland heath area like padworth common, there needs to be a set of objectives crucial to the infrastructure of the scheme to manage the whole area and the all the individual features in it. The first is a very generalised objective and covers as many of the features benefits in one goal this is to encourage the restoration and health of lowland heathland to retain the ecological value of Padworth heath (Westcombe, n.d.). The other three objectives are more constrained in the features that they benefit. The first is the have grazing at the site to monitor and manage the growth of the heath, This will majorly benefit the ground nesting birds like the nightjar. The second plan is to have regulations and management for the public and the nightjar population to reduce disturbance, this is primarily aimed and nightjars and nesting birds to minimise disturbance and help promote nest production (Westcombe, n.d.). Finally the 3rd management project is the control the spread and removing strands of bracken, this is to reduce competition with the local heathland plants and improve the biodiversity of the plant life in the area. The legal constraints for this area is that Lowland heathland areas all over Britain are under the protection of the wildlife and countryside act of 1981 and is notified as SSSI (Westcombe, n.d.). Compartments or zones The area of Padworth common is divided into 3 different zones; Open heathland, oak forest and seasonal/permanent ponds; Open heathland are open landscapes commonly dominated by heathers, gorse and has a few sliver birch tress spaced in the area. There are 3 different types of heath dependent on their soil moisture content wet heath occur on high water tables, dry heath is abundant in free draining soils. Heath is important for over 5000 invertebrates that are crucial to the food chain of this ecosystem (Countryside Info, n.d.). Oak woodland is a broad leaf woodland highly occupied by English oak, sessile oak or hybrids between the two. The oak woodland is highly established woodland as a resource basis for building and fuel. The oak woodland is also a representation of the climax vegetation in the southwest of Britain where Padworth common is located (North Dervon Government, n.d.). The seasonal pounds can support a vital ecosystem for many specialised pond species. This coupled with that a large number of rare species has been linked with the seasonal pond which makes these one of the highest management aims of Padworth common (The Ponds Conservation Trust, n.d.). Enviromental information The physical aspects of the heath are that it is a mosaic of wet damp and dry habitats. The type of habitat is found on poor acidic soils in wet mild climates below 300m of altitude. Th biological features of this site are the many species that the heathland can accomidate from the greyling butterfly to the rare great crested newt (English Nature, 2002). This is due to the many niches available for the animals to occupy; the seasonal pounds are a rich source of nuitrients and support many rare species. The open heath which is occupied by many ground nesting birds such as the nightjar. The gorse bushes are used by the Dartford warbler to build nest and protect themselves from predation (English Nature, 2002). Culturally lowland heath has been an important part to human agriculture for thousands of years. The Mesolithic played a great part in the expansion of the lowland heath habitat by cutting down great swathes of the woodland landscape for building material and fuels. This mass cut ting of woodland had impoverished the soil but this has and a positive effect on heather ground and promotes the growth of lowland heathland (English Nature, 2002). Up until the 20th century heathland has been used in a wide range of agricultural processes such as fodder and fuel (English Nature, 2002). Vision Description of site The Padworth common nature reserve is split into two halfÃ¢â¬â¢s divied by Bowughugrst Road. The heathland is located in the centre of each area while the Oakland is defines the boundaries of the nature reserve. The pounds are locates towards the south west corner of the southern half of the reserve. Conformation and evaluation of features Pathworth has many features and species that make this a site of National importance. Species such as the nightjar, the Dartford warbler and the Grayling butterflies (Wallington, 2013). Each of these will have a certain factors that can affect the species success and survival such as; the road that passes through the reserve, the seasonal ponds, and the growth of bracken. This plan focuses on the Dartford warbler and the key features that effect these are gorse coverage and heathland health (RSPB, 2014). The management of this species is desperately needed due to the harsh winters that have been occurring recently and that there are only1-2 breeding pairs in pad worth (Defra, n.d.). for this species to thrive and stabilise and even increase in population size drastic action is needed to preserve this native bird species. The Dartford warbler (Sylvia undata) Factors Effecting the Dartford warbler There at many factors that affects the breeding success and survival rates of the Dartford warbler. The main 2 factors are the amount of gorse in an area, disturbance and Availability of food. Gorse has a huge effect on the Dartford warbler; this is due to the warbler uses the gorse as nesting material. This is because the benefits it has as protection from predators by being a heavy dense shrub and makes its hard from predators to access (RSPB, 2012). Disturbance has been shown in recent study to majorly effect warbler fecundity. A study has shown that if 13-16 people walk through a heathland area within an hour this can seriously disrupt the breeding patterns of birds and will prevent multiple broods of warblers (Murison, et al., 2007). Objectives for the feature: The objectives laid out for this management plan are in priority order; The main objective for this animal is to maintain the already stable population in the management site of Padworth common. If at all possible our secondary objective is to even increase the number of breeding pairs in Padworth common from 2 breeding pairs to 4. The thirds and least priority objective is that if we can get successful breeding pairs to Padworth we could then export the juveniles into other areas to increase the number of breeding pairs in other heathland habitats. Current condition of feature: The current condition of the Dartford warbler in Europe is that there are 2,025,546-3,635,791 breeding pairs. 75% of the breeding pairs are thought to be breeding in spain. The population is general stable in Europe (Defra, n.d.). There are certain areas of Spain where the Dartford warbler has been seen in a sustained decline since the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s. Fluctuations are not uncommon in this bird (Defra, n.d.). The current condition of the bird internationally is near threatened according to the IUCN red list. (IUCN, 2012) Nationally this bird has been awarded an amber status under the RSPB classification system (RSPB, 2014). The main population of the warbler are in the south and south west of Britain, with a small population in the south east of Britain (RSPB, 2014). The last estimated minimum of breeding pairs in the UK is 1,600-1,890 (Defra, n.d.). Monitoring projects: To monitor the bird populations there are two ways in which this can be done; The first is to let the public and volunteers are able to monitor the birds this can be accomplished through education and a growing interest in the local bird populations. The main disadvantage to this method is that this may increase disturbance of the birds. Key sites can be pinpointed which can be monitored by the park wardens and wildlife trust employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s this will reduce the amount of disturbance to the breeding birds and still achieve rewarding results. The only flaw with this method is if the bird numbers become higher it may be hard to identify all the birds. Management projects: These are the four management project that will be used to help increase and stabilise the population of the Dartford warbler. Introducing grazing, this is active grazing of livestock on the heathland areas to stop the overgrowth of a particular plant species. Coppicing, this is the cutting of the old parts of gorse to promote new regrowth promoting healthier and denser shrubs. Tree felling, this is done by hand (chainsaw) and the roots dug up to stop the regrowth of the trees. The logs will then be burnt or sold to companies. Bracken removal, this can be done by spraying herbicide on the infected areas thus eradicating of the plant. This is typically done in the summer months due to the plant being at maximum growth. A timetable showing the priority and timescale of projects; Justification of project: The Justification of these methods is as follows; Introduced grazing, this helps promote and uneven ages (mosaic) of the heathland. This maximises the biodiversity of the area due to many species requiring different ages of bracken to survive. This is ideal for the Dartford warbler for its food supply of invertebrates which need the heather for their survival (Hampshire County Council, 2011). Coppicing, this promoted regrowth of the older gorse. Typically the Dartford warbler prefers younger gorse, this is because it is much denser and provide more camouflage and protection of the nest site from predators. Therefore the coppicing of older dead parts of the plant promotes these parts to grow back into thick Bracken which the Dartford warbler needs for nesting (Hampshire County Council, 2011). Tree felling, the felling of trees such as birch helps the regrowth of the open heathland which is advantageous to many species such as the Dartford warbler. The warbler needs these open spaces of heath to be able to catch the invertebrates and feed (Hampshire County Council, 2011). Bracken removal, this is crucial in the survival of any woodland. The dense mate cause by this plant will shade out any other plants. So in vast numbers this is very detrimental to the whole heathland ecosystem. With control and management this increases the biodiversity of the area allowing other plant life to thrive (Hampshire County Council, 2011). Works Cited Berkshire Heathland, 1998. Berkshire Heathland Biodiversity Action Plan, s.l.: s.n. Countryside Info, n.d. What Is Heathland?. [Online] Available at: http://www.countrysideinfo.co.uk/whatis.htm [Accessed 10 3 2014]. English Nature, 2002. Lowland Heathland A Cultural And Endangerd Landscape, Peterborough: English Nature. Fort, L., 2013. Get Reading. [Online] Available at: http://www.getreading.co.uk/news/local-news/wildlife-trust-set-run-west-4189279 [Accessed 10 3 2014]. IUCN, 2012. IUCN redlist (Dartford Warbler). [Online] Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22716984/0 [Accessed 10 3 2014]. Jeffery, O., 2004. Padworth Common Proposed Local Nature Reserve. s.l., s.n. Murison, G. et al., 2007. Habitat type determines the effects of disturbance on the breeding productivity of the dartford warbler Sylvia undata. Ibis, Volume 149, pp. 16-26. North Dervon Government, n.d. Oak Woodland. [Online] Available at: http://www.northdevon.gov.uk/oak_woodland.pdf [Accessed 10 3 2014]. RSPB, 2012. RSPB (Gorse). [Online] Available at: http://www.rspb.org.uk/ourwork/conservation/advice/gorse/index.aspx [Accessed 10 3 2014]. RSPB, 2014. RSPB (Dartford Warbler). [Online] Available at: http://www.rspb.org.uk/wildlife/birdguide/name/d/dartfordwarbler/ [Accessed 10 3 2014]. The Ponds Conservation Trust, n.d. Good Wilflife Ponds. [Online] Available at: http://www.sussexotters.org/pdf/Good wildlife ponds.pdf [Accessed 10 3 2014]. Wallington, A., 2013. Natural England. [Online] [Accessed 10 3 2014]. Westcombe, n.d. Management Of Environmental Features Specific Options, Prescriptions And Indicators Of Success, s.l.: s.n. Millennium Development Goals and Poverty Reduction: Nigeria Millennium Development Goals and Poverty Reduction: Nigeria Introduction Background to the Study This study attempt to examine the impact of the Millennium Development Goals and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria using with a case study of Ado-Odo Ota, local government area, Ogun state, Nigeria. The issue of poverty in Nigeria has remained a major threat to the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s social, political and economic development. Every nation whether it is developed or less developed country contains elements that are poor. Nigeria has a population of more than 160 million Ã¢â¬â the largest in Africa Ã¢â¬â and a fast-growing economy. Despite NigeriaÃ¢â¬â¢s plentiful agricultural resources and oil wealth, poverty is widespread in the country and has increased since the late 1990s. Some 70 per cent of Nigerians live on less than US$1.25 a day. Poverty has become a feature of the living conditions and life situation of the vast majority of Nigerians. According to Babatunde et al (2008), Poverty has been viewed to be a global phenomenon but the level of this dilemma in developing countries has gotten to an alarming proportion. Internationally, about 1.2 billion people are living in extreme poverty less than one dollar per day and therefore due to the high predominance of poverty, reducing it has been of grave concern to many countries in the past few decades. Though, there have been a lot of improvements in the developed world, such cannot be said of developing ones especially in the Sub-Sahara Africa where poverty is prevalent due to many factors such as corruption, mismanagement of resources, poor programme implementation, poor governance and political instability, poor economic management and lack of purposive leadership. According to Ukpong (1996), (cited in Obadan, 1996) explained that poverty has earned identification in the extent of its ravaging society and the affairs of humanity at the international, national and local levels. The need exists now for urgent actions towards its reduction and control. Therefore, poverty is a snare and it is dehumanizing. In other words, judging from what Ukpong explained poverty to be, it will be ideal if poverty can be eradicated. According to Anyanwu (1997), Poverty has become a major cause of concern to academic, analysts, governmental, non-governmental organizations and international agencies. Poverty is multidimensional; it includes various alienations and deprivations such as: lack of human capabilities, poor life expectancy, poor maternal health, illiteracy, poor nutritional levels, poor access to safe drinking water and perceptions of well-being However, the (World Bank Report, 1999), has described that issues in Poverty now include: physiological and social deprivations, vulnerability, inequality, violation of basic human rights. (Zupi, 2007), also added that the observable disadvantage in relation to the local community or the wider society or nation to which a deprived individual, family, household or group belongs is an issue in poverty. In an attempt to salvage the situation, in September 2000, 189 World leaders millennium summit and committed themselves and their countries to 8 goals known as The Millennium Development goals (MDGÃ¢â¬â¢s) aimed at meeting the needs of the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s poorest people. The Millennium Development goals have been regarded as the universal remedy of issues of underdevelopment. These goals were created under the leadership of Ban Ki-Moon (the Secretary General of the United Nations) through the UN to tackle issues seen to be holding back developing nations. It was adopted by 189 countries and signed by 174 heads of state and government. (UNDP, 2005) Ban Ki-Moon (2009), laid more emphasis on this in his report entitled, Ã¢â¬Å"A road map towards the implementation of the United Nations Millennium DeclarationÃ¢â¬ . In the words of Ban Ki-Moon, The world leaders set far sighted goals to free a major portion of humanity from the shackles of extreme poverty, hunger, illiteracy and disease. They established targets for achieving gender equality and the empowerment of women, environmental stability and a global partnership for development. In short, they adopted a blue print for a better world and pledged to spare no effort in fulfilling that vision (Ki-Moon, 2009). The MDGÃ¢â¬â¢s are listed plans by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) committee on how the underdeveloped or developing countries can enhance their level of development in different socio-economic areas. The MDGÃ¢â¬â¢s are: Goal 1- Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Goal 2- Promote gender equality and empower women Goal 3- Achieve a Universal primary education Goal 4- Reduce child mortality Goal 5-Improve Maternal Health Goal 6-Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Goal 7-Ensure environmental stability Goal 8- Develop a global partnership The first goal of the United Nations Millennium development Goals is to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger with Target 1 being to halve, between 1990 and 2015 the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 per day: and Target 2 being to halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger (Sachs, 2005:72) Since, poverty as the number 1 goal of the MDGÃ¢â¬â¢s shows an alarm in both national and the global world. According to Yinka (2003), the UN Development Programme Human development report scored the Nigerian government low on its efforts to combat poverty and pursue meaningful growth in the human development index. The report states Nigeria is among fifty countries with the lowest human development index and the 54th among 94 other developing countries where human income poverty level remains the highest. Odeyale (2005) explained that in Nigeria, about 36% or 44.3 million of the total 160 million populations are found in the major cities. The rapid growth of the Nigerians cities is characterized by ever increasing population (due to rural urban migration) over stressed infrastructure (such as dilapidated roads, frequent power outage, poor water supply), sub-standard living condition (in ghettos, slum and over-crowded houses), high crime rate. Put differently, it can be described that the growth of population in Nigeria is always on the increase and the availability of defaulted infrastructures and low standard of living which in turn lead to low crime rate. To this end, this study becomes inevitable so as to access the impact of millennium development goals to poverty reduction in Nigeria. Statement of the Problem Different scholars have argued about the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015 particularly in Nigeria. While some scholars have argued that it can be achieved before the set target date of 2015, some have argued against the possibility of its achievement. The Millennium Development Goals were goals structured and formulated by the United Nations in the year 2000 to help bridge the gap between the Global North and the Global South. These goals however, were supposed to be of a positive influence to the less developed countries especially in the area of eradicating poverty. However, it has been observed that some of the developing countries are still lagging behind especially in the area of poverty reduction; Nigeria has been observed to be a country of plenty yet is still beset with the problem of poverty. What therefore can be said of other underdeveloped countries in Africa? The United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-Moon is of the view that the Millennium Development Goals embody basic human rights such as the right of each person to health, education, shelter and security. The Goals are ambitious but feasible and jointly with the comprehensive United Nation development agenda set the course for the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s effort to alleviate poverty by 2015. According to Ban Ki-Moon (2009), the Millennium Development Goals would bring about a change and to a large extent, a real difference in the lives of people. With strong Leadership and accountability; this progress can be expanded in most of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s countries by the target date of 2015. However, some scholars are not in agreement to the view of Ki-Moon that the MDGÃ¢â¬â¢s would bring about a change in the lives of people. According to Deneulin and Shahani (2009) argued that the Millennium Development Goals lack a focus on local participation and empowerment (Excluding women empowerment). The Millennium Development Goals also lack an emphasis on sustainability, making their future after 2015 questionable. Thus, while the MDGs are a tool for tracking progress toward basic poverty reduction and provide a very basic policy road map to achieving these goals, they however do not capture all the elements needed to achieve the ideals set out in the Millennium Declaration. The inability to reach a valid conclusion as to the actualization of the Millennium goals by 2015 has resulted to the Millennium development Goals remaining a problem. Therefore the essence of the Millennium Development Goals comes into play in the context of Nigeria in the sense over 53.6% million Nigerians which is nearly 45% of the total population go to bed hungry every night, around 70% of the total 160 million citizens live below the globally acceptable survival line of $1 Dollar which is equivalent to 160naira per day. Also, over 5million of our youths are not employed, therefore Nigeria according to the National Poverty Eradication Programme (2003) is quoted to be among the poorest country in the world. Therefore, this study seeks to examine the progress in achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria, how far the Nigerian government have gone for the realization of these goals, and how the Nigerian Government and the society at large intend on making the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Nigeria, a reality by 2015. Research Questions The research seeks to answer the following questions: What is the impact of Millennium Development Goals in poverty reduction in Nigeria? Can it be agreed upon that Extreme Poverty and Hunger in the Nigerian state would minimized by 2015? What can be done for Millennium Development Goals to influence the Poverty reduction in Nigeria? Objectives of the Study To examine the impact of Millennium Development Goals in poverty reduction in Nigeria. To evaluate if the extreme poverty and hunger rate in Nigeria can be minimized by 2015. To examine the role of Millennium Development Goals in poverty reduction in Nigeria. Research Hypotheses The Hypothesis to be used for this study would be drawn from the objective of this study. There are: H0: Millennium Development Goals has not impacted in poverty in Nigeria. H1: Millennium Development Goals has impacted in poverty in Nigeria H0: The extreme hunger and poverty in the Nigerian state cannot be minimized by 2015. H2:. The extreme hunger and poverty in the Nigerian state can be by 2015. H0: Millennium development goals has not influenced Poverty reduction in Nigeria H3: Millennium development goals has influenced Poverty reduction in Nigeria Significance of the Study Over the years, this study has been examined by various scholars. The study of the Millennium Development Goals has remained of great importance as it addresses issues on development which Nigeria needs at this very time. The issues of poverty and the bid to alleviate it has been a key issue which governments have attempted to deal with. This attempt has manifested in the various past poverty reduction programmes carried out by the government all aimed at improving the quality of the lives of the populace. The essence of this study is to expose the rate of poverty reduction since its inception of the Millennium Development Goals in 2000. This study will bring forward the various methods or means that the government has embarked on towards the achievement of Poverty reduction especially in Ado-odo ota local government area, Ogun state, Nigeria as a case study, and the impact of millennium development goals in poverty reduction in Nigeria in particular. The importance of this work is to view how poverty reduction can be achieved alongside United Nations Millennium development Goals in Nigeria and the impact of the government towards poverty reduction. And also study at the possibility of the attainment of this goal by 2015 with the use of relevant structures. This study will form a secondary data to other researchers who will research in this area. 1.7 Scope of the study This study examines Millennium Development Goals and Poverty Reduction with particular reference to Ado-odo local government area in Nigeria will be used as a case study. The period covered for this study will be from 2000-2015. This time duration becomes necessary since Millennium Development Goals was formulated in 2000 and to elapse in 2015. It should be noted that 2015 is just some months away. This study also focuses on the possibility of attaining the Poverty Eradication goal by 2015. Research Methodology This segment would discuss the methods to be used in this study. Research methodology can be described as a path through which the objectives of the study can becomes actualized Source of Data The study would engage both primary and secondary sources of data. By primary data sources, required data and information will be collected directly through interviews with Academicians and Government officials in different fields of study in Ado-Odo, Ota Local Government Area, Ogun state. Questionnaires will also be administered to a wider range for information to be extracted from the general public. Secondary sources of data refers to the information gathered from already published or unpublished materials such as magazines, journal articles, newspapers, internet and online materials, lecture notes, conference materials, relevant books and other materials relevant to the subject matter. Secondary sources of data will be employed in this study. Population of the Study The population to be used for this study would include non-governmental bodies, political actors, academicians, and the society at large. The reason for this population range is not only because of their level of knowledge, but also for their importance as key players in the political system. Sample Size A total of 100 questionnaires would be administered during the course of this research. A sum of 5 persons will also be interviewed for vital information to the study. Instrument of data Collection The conduct of direct interviews and the use of questionnaires will be designed as research instrument to collect data on how the Millennium Development Goals have helped attainment of Poverty Reduction in Nigeria. Both Quantitative and Qualitative research methods would be applied. Data Analysis Technique The analysis technique used in this study would be Correlation/Regression Analysis. This analysis would be engaged to study the relationship between the variables used in this research work. Outline Of The Study Chapter One introduces the topic and the MDGÃ¢â¬â¢s itself by providing a background to the study. It clarifies the concept of development and how important it is to the nation. It goes on to the statement of problem, the objectives of the study, questions the research seeks to answer, methodology of the study, research significance and hypotheses, and the scope and limitations of the study. Chapter Two covers the review of literatures relevant to this research and the theoretical framework that best explains the subject matter of this study. This includes the conceptualization of key terms, and the theoretical framework which provides a better grasp of the relationship between the millennium development goals and poverty reduction in Nigeria Chapter Three is an overview and assessment of the millennium development goals and poverty reduction in Nigeria. This chapter also examines the causes of Poverty in Nigeria. It moves on to examining the various poverty reduction programmes and policies, the challenges faced in the achievement of these programmes and the current problems of Poverty and hunger in Nigeria. It also outlined the roles of the Nigerian government and the Ogun state Government in attaining poverty reduction in Nigeria; it also would examine the various poverty reduction programmes carried out by the Ogun state Government from 1999 to 2015. Chapter Four is the presentation of data, analysis and interpretation. Data gotten from the field work through interviews and questionnaires will be analyzed using secondary data to support the data analysis. Chapter five summarizes the work, makes recommendations and concludes the study.